The Lanner falcon (Falco biarmicus) is listed in Annex I of the EU Birds Directive, is classified as a Species of European Conservation Concern (SPEC level 3), and is listed in Appendix II of the Bonn Convention, Annex II of the Bern Convention, and Appendix II of CITES. Italy hosts 85% of the whole European breeding population, distributed in the territory in a discontinuous and fragmentary way with a greater concentration in Sicily. Out of the five subspecies known, only one inhabits Europe: Falco biarmicus feldeggii. This subspecies is distributed in southern Europe and in small areas in the Caucasus region, and breeds in only three European countries. In recent years, various studies have shown the decrease of the Italian population: in 2007 the National Action Plan indicated a population estimated at 140-172 pairs. In 2014 other data estimated 123-147 pairs, while the most recent scientific study (April 2018) estimated the Italian population as 60-80 breeding pairs and the entire world population as only 119-171 breeding pairs, confirming a dramatic decline.
In Lazio, the population went from 10-15 pairs in the 1980s, to 4-6 couples in 1990. Since 2001 the population of the Lanner falcon in Lazio has been constantly monitored; since 2016, no nesting pair has been detected. On the Maltese Islands, the Lanner falcon was breeding up to the nineteenth century, but at the present time it is only a vagrant visitor.